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What You Need to Know About Lean Six Sigma


Often customers want to know, where shall I start using Lean Six Sigma?  How can I go from my current level to Six Sigma?  The answer is simple.  It requires the organization to listen to their customers, document what they are hearing, and prioritize the major themes they hear from customers.  Six Sigma doesn’t have to be complicated, organization-wide or address every problem the organization has at the on-set.  Begin simply by asking these questions:

Where is the biggest pain? Start here!  Pain can be further described as follows:

Customers are complaining.

Cost is substantial / problematic.

Known problems are easily described.

Previous improvement efforts have failed to achieve the desired impact.

Next, the organization must ask itself - Where are our most talented resources?

Lean Six Sigma spreads when people see with their own eyes the success it can allow teams to achieve.  Therefore, picking projects that have the highest likelihood for success becomes critical during the early stages of Lean Six Sigma implementation.  Ask where do we have the best:



Effective teams that work well together

Image of business partners hands on top of each other symbolizing companionship and unity

Analytical resources who are interested in working with innovative teams.

Even terrific teams can fail if their leadership does not support the effort, or if the effort doesn’t address one of the key leadership priorities/initiatives.   Have you set your team up for success?

In which Agency/Organization is the top leadership willing to try Six Sigma?

  • Effective teams who work well together and are supported by strong leaders should be the first ones selected for a Lean Six Sigma project.
  • These types of teams will ensure early wins so as to convince others of the benefit of the Lean Six Sigma approach.
  • See this Wall Street Journal article,, “Why Companies should hire teams not individuals”, Sydney Finkelstein, October 29th 2017. Business Section.  Journal Reports: Leadership.

Go where the energy is highest!

Finally, in order to complete the project in a short period of time, ask this: Where do you have significant data already that would lead to effective project selection?  When new data must be gathered to start a project, it requires experienced, skilled analytical people who have probably used Lean Six Sigma before.  Wait until your organization has some experience, or use external resources to accomplish this data collection exercise first before you undertake an initiative in this area.  Otherwise, ask yourself, “Where do we have either:

Scorecards, Dashboards or Metrics that are available and utilized.

A team works together to pull up a growth arrow
Male hand drawing Project flow chart on transparent wipe board.

Six Sigma process improvement efforts are accomplished project by project. All successful projects require structure – a team, a leader and a sponsor/champion.  If projects are not defined up-front, teams have difficulty scoping the opportunity and attacking it.  Champions have difficulty supporting the effort.  In order to define a project – start with these questions:

  1. Is this project central to the organization’s goals and objectives?
  2. Who is the customer or customer segment who will most directly benefit from the project’s execution? Will the customer feel differently if the goals outlined in a project charter are achieved?  A customer can be an internal (to the organization) one - the external customer is not always the right one for your project.
  3. Will the executives responsible for this project and the resources dedicated to its completion feel accountable for its success?
  4. What is the project scope and can this project scope be executed in 4-6 months?
  5. Will this project deliver quantifiable results?
  6. If data that describes the problem is not readily available, will it be available to be gathered within the first 1-2 months of the project?
  7. Is there an identified process owner who will take over the improvements implemented in the project and own the ongoing control plan documented during the control phase?
  8. Are the appropriate team members/resources available to ensure this project is successful?

Unfortunately, the annals of history include thousands of projects that either failed, were stopped or never achieved their full potential.  Why is this the case?  There are several reasons that are sure to lead to project failure.  These include:

  • Lack of defined project scope or project scope is too great. Experienced Lean Six Sigma Master Black Belts or Black Belts can assist leaders in avoiding this by spending time defining a scope that can be executed in 4 months, given the current team’s availability.
  • No results-orientation or ownership for implementing solutions. Stakeholder objectives and involvement must be identified and documented using a project chartering effort which creates support and fleshes out potential barriers to success.
  • No pulsing mechanism is used to gather team on a weekly basis. This is a project requirement and must be enforced by the project leader and encouraged by the project champions and sponsors.
  • No pulsing mechanism is used by the champions/sponsors to find out project status: Lack of leadership involvement in updates can result in projects which crawl towards the finish line, many of which fall short of reaching it.
  • Risk assessment not used to identify risk factors to be managed. A proper risk assessment should be conducted in both the project chartering and the improve phase to ensure team has thought through most likely and impactful risks and has an abatement plan to address these.
  • Early project findings (typically discovered in measure phase) identify issues that the leadership team is unprepared to address. Sometimes projects identify uncomplimentary customer perspectives.  This situation can necessitate a response that the organization is unwilling to support.  The lean six sigma team should not be penalized for this situation but rather encouraged through effective leadership which gives political support to the project effort or selects another opportunity for the team to address.
  • Organizational priorities change and sufficient time cannot be allocated to the project effort. The organization must be honest about its priorities and if these no longer include the Lean Six Sigma project, the team should be released or reassigned.
  • Project leaders views themselves as facilitators who are not responsible for implementation. This responsibility should be set during the project chartering phase when the champion and the project leader/team discuss the role of the team.  There are project efforts which do not require implementation, but these are rare and are likely focused on providing the data to support future projects.  More likely, the team will be responsible for all phases of the project and transition ownership to the process owner during the control phase.
  • Team has hidden agendas which are not discovered or addressed during project evolution. Every project team will go through the forming, storming, norming, and performing phases of team work (See Bruce Tuckman’s 1965 Model re: stages of group development).  During the forming and storming phases, these issues should be raised, conflict addressed, and norms determined so that the team can be most effective moving forward.  Practiced teaming skills are a significant requirement of Lean Six Sigma projects and facilitating teams is one of the most critical skillsets of a project leader.
  • Team not given enough time to be successful. The longer a team works together, the more successful they can be. High-energy, achieving teams have learned the value of conflict resolution, team norms and project team charters.  They effectively use ground rules to encourage honest dialogue and supportive team behavior.  The more quickly a newly-formed team can move through the stages of team evolution, the more swiftly they will be capable of driving project results.

Teams that utilize the following success factors have a much higher likelihood of success:

  1. Defined data-driven methodology used to approach problem
  2. Clear project structure with project leader, project team and involved project sponsor
  1. Right-size, no more than 8 people
  2. Extended expertise pulled in only as required, not permanent part of core team
  3. Able to have honest discussion
  4. Feel ownership for results
  1. Results oriented, experienced barrier-buster
  2. Analytically minded with working knowledge of Lean Six Sigma tools, techniques and methodology
  3. Has change-management expertise and proven track record at influencing others
  4. Good Communicator, both orally and using written communication
  5. Effective presenter
  6. Sponsor/Champion has confidence in and supports the project leader
  1. Within team – weekly meetings preferred format, with monthly face-to-face meetings
  2. To Sponsor – biweekly update
  3. To Executive Team interested in results – Monthly update with more frequent written project update(s) sent via email 

  • Project leader who is well versed and experienced in lean tools and techniques and is able to apply these to affect both short and long-term opportunities
  • Effective Kaizen leader with expertise in preparing teams to conduct Kaizen events/workshops
  • Teacher who works with teams of people to learn and apply lean tools that identify value and waste and work to eliminate anything that prohibits process flow
  • Lean Sensei’s can also be Green and Black Belts
  • Typically owns the area in which the project resides
  • Is not a full-time project leader, but rather leads a project within their area of expertise
  • Applies 20-40% of time to the project (depending upon the project) execution
  • Selects a project that is narrow enough in scope to be done within the time they are available to devote to project
  • Trained in Six Sigma Tools, Techniques and Project Methodology. Training format often involves a session comprising of 2-3 days of training followed by applied project work.  Generally 2-4 sessions are required to complete Green Belt Training for a total of 8-10 days.
  • Leads a project team focused on a particular area of opportunity
  • Works closely with a project sponsor to ensure team is effective
  • Leads Project, Reports out to Leadership team and is an effective change agent
  • Is not required to be an expert in the project area
  • Applies 80-100% of time to a project or multiple projects.
  • Selects or is assigned to a project or multiple projects and executes them simultaneously
  • Depending upon project scope, Black Belts can complete a project in 4-6 mths
  • Trained in Six Sigma Tools, Techniques and Project Methodology. Training format often involves a session comprising of 4-5 days of training followed by applied project work.  Generally 3-4 sessions are required to complete Black Belt Training for a total of 16-20 days.  Tools and change management/leadership techniques that are advanced beyond those taught in Green Belt Training are core content in Black Belt Training. 
  • Works closely with a Six Sigma Champion and/or a Master Black Belt to execute projects and report out to leadership team
  • Can be called on to assist customers/suppliers on key organizational initiatives
  • Helps set strategic direction by:
  1. working with leadership team to select appropriate projects
  2. training and mentoring Black/Green Belts and
  3. developing pulsing mechanisms to monitor progress
  • Leads Large Mega-Projects, reports out to Leadership team and is an effective change agent
  • Coaches Black and Green Belts
  • Trains others in Six Sigma Tools, Techniques & Methodology
  • 100% dedicated to advancing results from Lean Six Sigma Projects within the Organization
  • Can be called on to assist customers/suppliers on key corporate initiatives
  • Trained in Six Sigma Tools, Techniques and Project Methodology. Training format often involves completing advanced, subject-specific sessions after successfully completing Black Belt Training. 

  • Leader – sets vision and relentlessly pursues results to achieve this
  • Effective team facilitator – knows how to lead teams to achieve the highest potential outcome
  • Analytical – enjoys analyzing data and searching for root causes to problems
  • Action Oriented – will not let barriers slow them down
  • Creative – always searching for new ways to do things
  • Change Oriented – Has experience driving new procedures/processes/ideas
  • Influential – Can influence others or figure out and implement influence strategies in order to accomplish change
  • Excellent Communicator – Verbal and Written
  • Proactive – Does not wait for a problem to surface, rather thinks through consequences ahead of time
  • Organized – Effective at organizing their time and prioritizing action required
  • Critical Skillset prior to training
  • Strong math/problem solving educational background
  • Comfortable creating and making presentations
  • Comfortable with Excel and Powerpoint Software

Roles, Responsibilities and Criteria of Project Sponsors

  • Owns the area in which the project resides
  • Accountable for project results and ongoing continuous improvement after the initial project is complete
  • Typically, responsible for many of the team members on the project team
  • Holds frequent (biweekly at a minimum) pulsing sessions with project leaders and teams
  • Assists teams to remove barriers
  • Encourages Team
  • Criterion of a Great Sponsor
  • Sees Six Sigma as an opportunity to improve his/her area of responsibility
  • Advocate for Change
  • Becomes and stays involved
  • Listens actively
  • Visibly holds self, along with team, accountable to deliver results
  • Exhibits outstanding communication skills – written and verbal

  • Owns the area in which the project resides
  • Accountable for project results and ongoing continuous improvement after the initial project is complete
  • Typically, responsible for many of the team members on the project team
  • Holds frequent (biweekly at a minimum) pulsing sessions with project leaders and teams
  • Assists teams to remove barriers
  • Encourages Team
  • Criterion of a Great Sponsor
  • Sees Six Sigma as an opportunity to improve his/her area of responsibility
  • Advocate for Change
  • Becomes and stays involved
  • Listens actively
  • Visibly holds self, along with team, accountable to deliver results
  • Exhibits outstanding communication skills – written and verbal

  • “Points the laser beam of focus” - Selects and sponsors ‘doable’, significant projects
  • Provides infrastructure, support and resources as required to complete the project
  • Holds regular pulsing sessions with project leaders and teams
  • Assists teams to remove barriers
  • When raised up to the Champion
  • When not raised up – but obviously impeding progress
  • Uses performance goals to ensure business leaders are on board
  • Reports to and updates executives and strategic stakeholders on progress
  • Criteria of a Great Champion
  • Sets the vision for the use of Lean Six Sigma to enable organizational priorities
  • Takes a laser-beam approach to apply resources strategically
  • Becomes and stays involved
  • Listens actively
  • Visibly holds project leaders accountable to deliver results
  • Exhibits outstanding communication skills – written and verbal
  • Takes ownership of project success with peers and executives

DMAIC 14 Required Deliverable Tollgates



14 Required Deliverable Tollgates

Define Phase - Deliverables

Define 1: Project CTQ’s – Critical To Quality Characteristics.  The first deliverable starts the project off with a focus on the customer as the team uses Voice of the Customer techniques to document the customers’ CTQ’s.


Define 2: Approved Charter.  Next the team must identify all project stakeholders to develop a project charter which will determine the project’s focus, timing, goals, business case, core and extended team members and sponsoring leadership.

Define 3: Process Map.  Early in the project’s life, the team will document a high level view of the process which details the series of steps required to execute the process.  The map will also include the process’: customers, suppliers, inputs required and output(s) delivered to the customer.


Measure Phase - Deliverables

Measure 4:  Project Y & Performance Standards.  The measure phase commences with a selection of the metric(s) that most directly reflects the customers’ CTQ(s).   This metric is known as the Y variable.  Customers and key stakeholders will be consulted to determine acceptable performance standards for the Y metric.   This performance standard will enable the team to determine what is a ‘defect’.

Measure 5:  Data Collection Plan & Validated Measurement System.  The key output of the measurement phase is a baseline of the current process’ performance.  Teams must document their approach to data collection and validate that their measurement system does not introduce significant variability simply in the way the data are being gathered.  With this required deliverable complete, the team can be assured that their measurement baseline accurately reflects the actual process.

Measure 6:  Data for Project Y.  The team gathers the data to baseline their process’ current performance.

Measure 7:  Process Capability for Project Y.  This deliverable is a statistical calculation based upon the data gathered in deliverable six.  It is a measurement of how many defects are generated in their current process out of the total opportunities to create a defect.  Process capability provides the baseline measurement against which future improvement efforts will be assessed.

Measure 8:  Improvement Goal for Project Y.  The last deliverable of the measure phase ensures that the team sets a goal that reflects the project charter and is also based upon current performance.

looking for defects

Analyze Phase - Deliverables

Analyze 9: Prioritized List of All X’s.  As the team begins the analyze phase, they will gather all information from the Define and Measure phases and will also utilize additional tools to identify a complete list of root causes which are driving performance in the Y metric.  These root causes are termed “X”’s in Six Sigma terminology.

Fishbone diagram - many uses in the manufacturing industry.

Analyze 10: List of the Vital Few X’s.  The team will continue to work with the list of X’s, evaluating each one to determine if it is a ‘vital x’ driving a significant proportion of the defects in the Y metric.  If the X is proven to be a ‘vital x’, solutions will be developed to address this X in the Improve phase.  If the X is determined to be a ‘trivial many’ X, in other words it is not driving a significant percentage of the variation in Y, it will be documented but not pursued in the Improve phase.

Improve Phase - Deliverables

Improve 11:  Proposed Solution.  The Vital Few X’s will advance to the first deliverable of the Improve phase as the team determines what strategy to use to develop proposed solutions which will address each of these X’s.  Alternative solutions will be considered, and the best will be selected and prepared for pilot.

A person climbing over the word Mistake to reach new heights and attain success despite past errors
3d rendering of a mobile crane lifting the last letters in place to spell the word DESIGN, to illustrate the concept of building a design..

Improve 12:  Piloted Solution.  The piloted solution is a process improvement that has been tested on a small scale in a real business environment. A successful pilot is one in which the piloted solution meets the project performance goals (and the ‘musts’ criteria).

Control Phase - Deliverables

Control 13:  Sustained Solution.  A sustained solution is a fully implemented and statistically confirmed process improvement that is supported with a control plan to ensure it remains in place over time.  For a solution to be sustained, a control plan must be put in place which addresses each Y and vital X.

Control 14:  Project Documentation.  Documentation is a necessary step to ensure that the learning gained via improvement is shared and institutionalized.  By doing this, the team will cement the gains of improvement as well as build supporting organizational systems and structures for future projects.

Image of business partners hands on top of each other symbolizing companionship and unity


Project Charter.  Use our project charter format to describe the scope, goals, team and timeframe of the problem you are targeting to solve through the use of the powerful DMAIC Lean Six Sigma methodology.  There are two formats of this file, one is in WORD and the other in POWERPOINT.

Lean Six Sigma Project Charter Template PPT_BC

Lean Six Sigma Project Charter Template WORD_BC

Net Promoter Score. Use the net promoter score to determine your customers’ loyalty to your product/service.  Included in this short module is a description of what is Net Promoter Score along with how to use it to quantify and qualify Voice of Customer.

Net Promoter Score_BC

SIPOC. Use this powerpoint template to document your high level process map on one page.

SIPOC Template with Charter_BC

Hoshin Deployment Matrix. The purpose of the Hoshin Kanri X Matrix Template for Lean Policy Deployment is to develop and implement plans that are strategic, tactical, and coordinated across people across the organization. The X-Matrix also ensures there is ownership at all levels and accountability, encourages organizational learning, faster course corrections, and cross departmental coordination. Hoshin means “Shining Metal Pointing Direction” in other words, it’s a compass that points to True North for your organization.  This template was developed by The Lean Methods Group and can also be found on their website.

Lean Methods Group_XMATRIX_hoshin_policy_deployment_templates

Balanced Scorecard. The balanced scorecard is a top-down approach that establishes the organization’s vision and strategy using metrics that address each of these four areas to link objectives: Customer Perspective, Financial Measurements, Internal Business Operations, Learning and growth.

Balanced Scorecard Template and Example_BC

Stakeholder Analysis. This excel template can be used to document the project’s stakeholders, their current level of support and the desired level of support required for the project’s success.

Stakeholder Analysis Template_BC

CTQ or Cause & Effect Matrix. Use this matrix to relate your customers’ CTQ’s to your processes’ or potential solutions. The output is a rating which will help your team to prioritize where to start your improvement effort or to implement your solution.

CTQ Matrix_BC

Cause and effect matrix Template_BC

Project CTQ and Voice of the Customer Data Collection Requirements. Use this word-based template to work with a team to identify the customer and the data required in order to document the customers’ Voice, known as VOC.

Project CTQ and VOC data collection requirements_BC

Selecting Y Checklist.  Selecting the proper Y (output) variable for your process is not necessarily simple. Use this template with your team to determine the best possible Y metric for your project, based upon key criteria which are outlined in the checklist.

Project Y Checklist_BC

Sample Size Calculator.  Use this tool to determine the appropriate sample size based upon your data collection requirements.

sample size calculator_BC

Data Collection Plan.  Every data collection effort should be accompanied by a data collection plan which you will use to think through the data required as well as the methods to collect the data.  Use this data collection plan to ensure you have documented the most important elements of this effort.  Additionally, use the template to work through your measurement system analysis requirements and document the results of your MSA Study.  The data collection plan checklist is a useful tool to ensure you have evaluated your plan against best practice methods to ensure you collect data which are reliable, and which properly reflect the process you are attempting to characterize.

Data collection worksheet and measurement systems analysis_BC

Six Sigma Calculator for Discrete Data.  Use this excel-based template to calculate Sigma Values to indicate how capable your process is of delivering defect-free products and/or services.

Calculating Sigma Values for Discrete Y_BC

Improvement goal.  Use this template to document your improvement goal which is the last deliverable in the measure phase.

Improvement Goal_BC

Data Plan Communication template.  Use this template to document a communication plan which can be used as you communicate any of the key Lean Six Sigma deliverables, project results or plans to collect data or implement solutions.

Data Collection Communication Plan_BC

Minitab Cheat Sheet.  This complete presentation gives an introduction to Minitab software so that users can build from no knowledge to grow their understanding of how to use this powerful tool.  Included are cheat sheets for each tool utilized in Minitab, cross referenced to relate to the Six Sigma data or tool requirement.

Minitab Introduction with Cheat Sheets_BC

Z Tables.  This file shows the Z tables and allows users to calculate their probability of a defect (P(d)), DPMO or Yield given different Z values.


Control vs impact matrix.  This simple matrix, in powerpoint format, can be used by your team to determine and demonstrate which of all of the X’s (root causes) contribute the most to your Y (output) measurement and directly affect your customers’ Critical to Quality (CTQ) characteristics.

Impact vs control matrix to list all X's_BC

Cause and Effect (fishbone) Diagram.  Use this easy-to-input template to create a powerpoint chart documenting your team discussion focused on the cause(s) for failure or defect.  Two templates are provided. The first is focused on the 6M’s (Man, Method,  Materials, Mother Nature, Measurement and Means) and the second on Waste (using the DOWNTIME acronym).

Cause and Effect Diagrams-Fishbone Diagram Template_BC

Value Added/Cycle Time Analysis tool.  This excel-based tool enables the use of a Lean Technique designed to ascertain the percentage of your process which is Value-Adding, Value-Enabling, or Non-Value Adding.  Descriptions of each of these categories is included as are all calculations required to determine the appropriate percentages.

value added cycle time analysis spreadsheet_BC

FAILURE MODE & EFFECTS ANALYSIS (FMEA).  This excel-based template allows a team to document failure modes for potential or actual processes and services.  The team can use the tool to identify: What can Fail, How it Can Fail, Estimate Risk of Failure, Determine Effect of Failure, Evaluate Control Plans to Detect or Prevent Failure and Prioritize Actions to take.  The template also includes a section to document action taken and re-evaluate the risk of failure, known as the “Risk Priority Number or RPN”.

FMEA Template_BC

TAKT time and Work Balance Load Chart.  Use this excel-based template to generate a work balance load chart to determine which process steps have greater or smaller cycle times than what is required by the customer demand rate reflected in your TAKT time.


GEMBA ‘Waste Walk’ worksheet.  Use this template to document waste in your GEMBA walks.  There are two files to consider.  One in PowerPoint and the other in excel format.

GEMBA Waste Walks PPT_BC

GEMBA Waste Walks excel_BC

Time observation tool. Use this template to collect data regarding process step cycle time.  The excel-based template provides columns for each process step in your value stream as well as ones dedicated to waiting or delay steps.  It also includes enough rows to ensure a minimum samples size of 10 units, each of which is observed as it travels through the value stream.


KANBAN calculation.  Use this template to determine advisable KANBAN quantities per container as well as the number of containers/cards required for your process to ensure proper flow without building excess inventory.

Kanban Card Calculations_BC

Beta Risk Calculator. Use this excel template to calculate alpha and beta risk given a certain sample size, mean, standard deviation and delta difference you are looking to detect.

Conducting a Kaizen Lean Event.  Use this excel-based template to prepare for your Kaizen Lean Event.  Included are each of the 3 phases of an event: Preparation, Event Facilitation and Post-Event Follow-up

  • Preparation: Pre-kaizen checklist
  • Facilitating the Event: Recommended agenda
  • Follow-up: Kaizen newspaper

Kaizen Planning Template_BC

Risk Assessment.  Use this excel-based tool to plan ahead for the implementation of a pilot, new product/service or improvement plan.  The tool documents a team’s discussion regarding risks that could negatively affect the project.  The template allows for the identification, prioritization and documentation of proposed abatement actions.

Risk Assessment_BC

Pilot Checklist.  Use the pilot checklist to think through how you will implement your pilot ahead of time in order to ensure you maximize your team’s energy and effort as they implement a piloted solution.

Pilot Planning and Analysis Template_BC

Sustained Solution and Pilot evaluation.  Use this evaluation form to document the results of your pilot, including both solution performance results as well as an evaluation of the pilot itself more broadly and of the learning achieved.

Pilot AND Sustained solution analysis sheet_BC

Developing the proposed solution.  This word document is designed to walk you through the ‘proposed solution’ deliverable.  It will help you think through your approach to the Improve phase, given the types of X’s you’ve identified, as well as provide a checklist to ensure the team properly evaluates solutions by using “Musts” and “Wants” criteria.

Developing the Proposed Solution_BC

Decision Making between alternate solutions.  This decision making matrix is used by leadership teams who are deciding which of alternative solutions to pursue. It requires a team of experts to evaluate solutions against 'must' criteria - which are minimal criteria which must be met to deliver the benefits to the customer and stakeholders against 'want' criteria - where the more of that criterion you have, the better the solution is. 

Wants vs Needs Decision Making Criteria Matrix

Control Plan.   Every Lean Six Sigma project must have a control plan to ensure that improvement is sustained and that there is accountability for ongoing continuous improvement efforts.  Ideally, the ‘process owner’ will own the control plan and ensure its recommended measurement and response plans are followed and reported to the value stream manager responsible to update leadership team(s) as well as the customer.

Control Plan template_BC

Sustain improvement checklist.  This checklist is used to document the final results of the project’s sustained solution.  It is used after the control plan has been implemented and the final solution has been implemented.

Sustained solution analysis sheet_BC

Project documentation checklist.  This checklist can be used to ensure the team gathers and communicates the required documentation to ensure future teams learn from the current project experience.

Project Documentation_BC

Radar Diagram.  The radar diagram is used to display several metrics at once for a particular (or multiple) value stream(s).  It can be used to assess what the next priorities should be for improvement effort.

Radar Diagram_BC

Six Sigma Reference Materials

  • Lean Six Sigma & Minitab: the Complete Toolbox Guide for all Lean Six Sigma Practitioners. By Quentin Brook.  Opex Resources LTD. 2014.
  • Lean Six Sigma for Service: How to use Lean Speed and Six Sigma Quality to improve Services and Transactions: Michael George. McGraw-Hill. 2003.
  • Applied Statistics for Business and Management using Microsoft Excel. Linda Herkenhoff and John Fogli.  Springer Science and Business Media. 2013.
  • Lean Six Sigma for Hospitals: Improving patient safety, patient flow and the bottom line. Jay Arthur.  McGraw-Hill 2016.
  • Lean Six sigma; A Tools Guide, 2nd edition. Murray Adams, Mark Kiemele, Lee Pollock and Tom Quan.  Air Academy Associates LLC. 2004.
  • Facilitator’s Guide …Facilitation at a Glance: Your Pocket Guide to Facilitation (Memory Jogger) by Ingrid Bens, GOALQPC and Janet MacCausland
  • 75 Icebreakers for Great Gatherings. Nan Booth.  Brighton Publications.  1999.

Lean Reference Materials

  • The Toyota Way.  Jeffrey K. Liker.  McGraw-Hill.  2004.
  • The Machine that changed the world. by James P. Womack, Daniel T. Jones and Daniel Roos. Free Press.  1990
  • The Goal. Eliyahu M. Goldratt and Jeff Cox  The North River Press Publishing Corporation.  4th edition 2014.
  • Lean Six Sigma: Combining Six Sigma Quality with Lean Speed: McGraw-Hill. 2002.
  • Lean Six Sigma for Service: How to use Lean Speed and Six Sigma Quality to improve Services and Transactions: Michael George. McGraw-Hill. 2003.
  • Lean Six Sigma for Hospitals: Improving patient safety, patient flow and the bottom line. Jay Arthur.  McGraw-Hill 2016.